Who II. Murat Han? II. Murat Han life short. II. Murat Han Life. II. Murat Han history. Death of II. Murat Han.
Sultan II, the sixth of the Ottoman sultans. Murad Han was born in Amasya in 1404. His father is Sultan Çelebi Mehmed and his mother is Emine Hatun , daughter of Dulkadırlı Süli Bey . After completing his first training and education with his family, he took lessons from the scholars of the time. He spent his childhood in Amasya, Bursa and Edirne. In 1415, in order to learn administrative and military information and gain experience and prepare for the state administration , he was sent to Amasya sancakbey next to his tulip Yörgüç Pasha .
The eastern border of the Ottomans was an extremely sensitive region. Turkmen and Mongolian communities lived here and their desire to act independently was high. It was difficult to discipline them.
The young prince, who has been doing these things for a year, took Kafir Samsun from Genoese with his tulip Biçeroğlu Hamza Bey in 1417. In the same year, Börklüce Mustafa and Torlak Kemal were sent to the Aegean region after the riots broke out. Along with Vezir-i azam Bayezid Pasha, he played a big role in suppressing the dangerous riots.
He ascended the throne in 1421 and reigned for thirty years. His tomb is next to the mosque he built in Muradiye neighborhood in Bursa .
Sultan II, who died when he was forty seven years old. Murad Han was a sultan of medium height, flat nose, open forehead, red-mail, dark hazel eyes, auburn hair, slightly sparse toothed, smiling, good moral owner, generous and good-loving sultan. He had six sons and four daughters. Sons; Sultan great Ahmed , Sultan Alaaddin , Sultan Mehmed Han , Sultan Orhan , Sultan Hasan and Sultan Küçük Ahmed . After their eldest son, Sultan Ahmed and Sultan Alaaddin, were buried in Bursa by passing away during the banner of Amasya. Sultan Orhan and Sultan Hasan died in Edirne and Darülhadis by the river Tunca They were buried beside him. Erhondu Hatun Yakub Bey, one of their daughters , married Mahmud Çelebi, son of Fatma Hatun Çandarlı İbrahim Pasha, and Şehzade Hatun , Sinan, the beylerbeyi. There is no information about Hatice Hatun lying in a tomb adjacent to her father’s tomb.
Sultan Murad was very young when he was the ruler of a state that had just emerged from a big shock. The Turkish principalities that Timur Khan revived in Anatolia; In Rumelia, he faced terrible ambitions of the Balkan and European states, who had the opportunity to take advantage of the weakness of the state. Byzantine was working insidiously to open a new state, an inner depression, to the state every day. Sultan Murad Han, who took over the state administration in such a depressed era, will not hesitate to sacrifice his life, but not for his comfort, for the sake of the roots of the Turkish unity in Anatolia throughout his life, although he preferred to live in Rumeli with natural borders. brave, text-willed and persevering.
Throughout his life, Timur Khan, the greatest Turkish hakan in that period, did not oppose his son Şahruh and pursued a very fine politics to avoid conflict. Thus, it prevented the two Sunni states from confronting. His reigning life, with internal and external galleries, was made by his son, Sultan Mehmed, who would open a new era in terms of civilization, not only politically and militarily, but left a country that could not be developed in any kind of scientific development.
Due to the love and indulgence of his people towards him, Murad Han, whom he called Koca Murad Gazi, was a spirited, sensitive, graceful, fair, merciful and loyal, brave and cautious, commanding statesman. The combat life that started when he was twelve at the age of twelve continued until his death. He liked scientific conversations, protected scholars and met their needs. He used to spend two days a week in the scientific assembly with a conversation. His knowledge and worship are also very much; the zühd, vera and its reinforcement were very much. One anxiety and thought; To give the last breath with faith was to open the forehead to the sight of Allahu teala, on the day of Judgment.
Although he spent almost his entire life in the gas squares, he was called Ebu’l Hayrat because he gave importance to the construction works and left many works . During his reign, he built madrasahs for the poor and ulema for the poor in Bursa, Edirne and other cities.
In Edirne, he built a mosque, a madrasah and a fountain, to teach the hadiths of our Prophet and raise students in religious knowledge. As a reason for this complex to be built among the people, the dream of the Prophet II. It is rumored that Murad signaled him to have a darülhadis here. In this respect , it has been famous with the name Darülhadis since the construction of the complex . Murad Han had the Tahtakale bath built, the income of which belonged to Darülhadis complex. Today, there are two tombs from the Darülhadis complex, a mosque and a fountain, and a garden.
II. The most important of Murad Han’s works in Edirne is Üç Şerefeli Mosque . The three-honored minaret, which gave the mosque its name, is 67.62 meters high. The minarets have come to life with red stone zigzags and white squares. Each of them gets out of the way. Üç Şerefeli mosque is located between the early and classical period styles in Ottoman art. The large central dome, twenty-four meters in diameter, sits on six stands, two of which are pillars and four are wall pillars. There are square sections covered by two smaller domes. The temple is a transverse rectangular structure as an innovation. Thus, it will set an example for the mosques that develop transversely.
Famous architect Ekrem Hakkı Ayverdi Bey says the following for the Three Honors Mosque. “This is the monument, which is the turning point of Ottoman architecture. This monument is an example of the Ottoman architecture finding itself together and it is the three honored conqueror of this move. Ottoman architecture will reach Süleymaniye, Selimiye, Sultanahmed after this period ”.
II. Hoca Sadeddin Efendi says about the mosque and its complex, which was built by Murad on a hill overlooking the Sarayiçi in Muradiye neighborhood, which is one of the most beautiful mosques and with its own name :
“This mosque, known for its beauty and elegance, is known by the beautiful name of Hünkar. Besides, places to live for the poor and musk are reserved, guesthouses, and heart-pleasing mansions for incoming and outgoing passengers. Rich tables are set up in the morning and evening, and banquets are served. A large barn was built for passenger cars and cargo animals. The feed needs of the animals are met here spontaneously, and the passengers, who are devastated by road fatigue, do not have the problem of preparing food and drink. In addition, a school building has been built for the education of children and the upbringing of young people. It was a place reminiscent of the gardens of Eden by building a Mevlevihane for the dervishes who grew up in Hazrat Mevlana. Hearts of heartbeat spread to the owners of the heart with the burning of heart.
Hoca Sadeddin Efendi says the following about the mosque, madrasah and its imaret, which also includes the tomb of Murad Han, which gave its name to the district in Bursa.
“The Great Mosque (Muradiye) built in Bursa city was also very beautiful. He made a large imaret for the cooking of various dishes at the entrance of the mosque and made it task for everyone to eat and feed the hunger when it got dark in the morning and evening. Thus, widows and orphans go to their households, whose bellies are saturated. In accordance with the path of his ancestor, whose stops are Heaven, he also has a separate place for young people who learn science. More than three hundred students study here every day. ”
II. Murad Han also built a bridge around Ergene in Edirne and established the town of Uzunköprü. He also built mosques in Thessaloniki and Ipsala. The villages of a large sub-title called Balıkhisarı in the Ankara region; He dedicated Mecca to the poor. Every year, he shared ten thousand gold coins with his own hands in the city he was in. He abided by the right of his subjects, and avoided the right of the servant. His father, Çelebi Sultan , continued the custom of sending gifts to the neighbors of our Prophet, to the neighbors of the Prophet, to the poor of Makkah-Al Mukarrama and Madina-i Münevvere.
On this occasion, the following event reveals his pure and clean faith.
As it was conveyed in the history of Aşıkpaşazade, a scholar named Fazlullah from the Acem country came to the Ottoman country and Sultan II. He was close to Murad Han. Eventually he rose to the office of vizier (1436).
It was time for the akches, which are sent to Beytullah every year, to be prepared and sent that year. The Sultan said to his vizier Fazlullah:
“Fazlullah! Send the prepared funds to Halilü’r-Rahmana, Kudüs-i Şerife, Kabetullaha and Medine-i Resule. Both Mevlana Yegan intended pilgrimage and send him with him. ”
However, no adequate fund was found in the treasury. They borrowed from Çandarlı Halil Pasha. Sultan:
“Khalil! Is this halal money you give? ” He asked. He said:
“The legacy of my father is money, my sultan,” he said.
Vizier Fazlullah saw that the sultan needed maple from time to time. He said:
“I am a state-owned sultan. Treasures are required for the sultans. If you please, I’ll collect it. ”
The Sultan: “How do you collect?” he asked.
“Most of the nation does not give their zakat to the treasure. Let’s take it by force. ”
II. Murad was wrapped:
“Bre queen! Don’t you know that zakat and charity are the right of the poor. Are we obliged to eat zakat so that we can take it by force? He said, “Go to work, go away.”
Sultan Second Murad Khan became his hometown of scholarship and awliya since he did not pay tribute to saints and treats by respecting the scholars and scholars. He took everybody’s prayer.
Even the great scholar Molla Yegan had brought him, the teacher of Fatih, the scholar Molla Gürani , as a gift on the return of pilgrimage . This is a unique phenomenon that has not been encountered in the cultural history of any nation, II. It also shows the value given by Murad Han to the knitting. It draws attention in terms of being the sultan whose most works were written in the Ottoman Empire. Indeed, in his time, many works of poetry and prose were written and the Ottoman palace became a treasure of artifacts.
II. The greatest service of Murad in the field of national culture is the importance it gives to the Turkish language. He showed meticulousness to write in Turkish by ordering an open language in the works written. Many Turkish works were written during the period. Especially Tevarih-i Al-i Selçuk, which describes the Turkish-Oguz traditions of Yazıcıoğlu Ali, the Danishmendname of Molla Arif Çelebi about Anatolian conquest and Turkification, Şeyhi’s Hüsrev-ü Şirin, Yazıcıoğlu Mehmed’s Muhammediyye The nightmare translated by Persian and Mercimek Ahmed from Persian are extremely important works in terms of our language history.
The following event that happened with Mercimek Ahmed, the nightmare of the nightmare, explains how sensitive the sultan is about language.
One day I arrived at the service of the sultan on the way to Plovdiv. I saw that the sultan of the world, the winner of the time, Sultan Murad Khan, a descendant of the sultan, holds a book in his hand. This insult, sick volunteer, that alicenap sultan:
“What is this book?” I asked. In his sweet words: he replied as a nightmare and said:
“It’s a nice book. It contains many useful things and advices. Amma is Farsi language. One person translated it into Turkish, but it is not understandable, he did not say it clearly. Therefore, we do not find the taste of the stories. But if anyone is there, if he translates this book clearly and understandably, that he enjoys his meaning. ”
After this conversation, Mercimek Ahmed translated the book into Turkish language in a very nice and terse style.
Again, according to the controversies, it is the sultan whose poems were recorded for the first time among the Ottoman sultans.
Though – who is not my wish is to make your büsüs,
to tell what is necessary for the moment that is Arif.
He was such a strong poet that he was able to write such poems. This poem is important in that it reflects his feelings and thoughts.
Every person has been engaged in the world on a profit We have been busy on
you we profit-ber-profit
Watch the lazarun eyler bâğ-ı dehre deceived Watch
us cemalün Çeşm-i hûnhâr on
If a person falls in love, the decision does not
hurt. If they shed, a murderer will be destroyed.
Rule out the provincial point,
o the owner-kemal Dest-i is the power to transfer because the perks
O Muradi became a scholar for each scholar, Alim
Cününçın, and went to mukarreb.
O dear, every person in the world is consuming life by dealing with a job.
We left as much work aside and only got you a job.
Deceived in the beauty of the world vineyard, but lingers in the tulip gardens.
On the other hand, our eyes looked like blood-filled tulips from crying to you. Show us your beautiful face and let our tears rest.
What a person in love travels in honor and success.
If water drops are poured on the fire, it will be destroyed.
O kemal owner! Do not go out of line with the point to be as ordered.
Because it is Allah’s discretion that guides you to that compass.
There is, of course, a Scholar (who knows everything) above every knowledge.
As a matter of fact, he went over mukarreb ebrar for him.
In his time, some of the Nazire magazines that constitute the basis of his dedications were also dedicated to him. In addition, there are many works dedicated to his name, and in almost all of them, the name of this Sultan like İrşadü’l-Murad ile’l Murad, Mesnevi-i Muradiye is mentioned. There is a broad-based cultural activity in the fast period and this movement has been the basis for the next centuries.
O only liver-parem
II. One of the most important services of Murad Han is that he brought up Fatih of the future and presented it to Turkish history. With the maturity and discretion that few monarchs can show, he abandoned his reign and even put him on the throne and made him thoroughly cook in the state administration. His transfer of his many years of experience at a very young age was the subject of a book. Says:
One day Sultan Murad Han was sitting on his throne in the center of Edirne. While he was playing and walking in the courtyard of the palace, his young boy prince (who hadn’t been to starboard yet) came running to his father suddenly and said:
“O my happy sultan and my respected father! I would like to ask you a question about an issue that I could not get out of, even though I was extremely curious, if I knew that I would not miss your blessed and honorable peace.
Against this word of Sultan Murad Khan’s son:
“O my only son, who is my liver! What do you want to ask and learn? Let me listen to you. I hope to try to give satisfying and curiosity answers. I would like this with all my heart. ”
Here are some parts of Sultan Murad Han’s speech that started with this kind of advice and continued with the advice that would fill a book:
Occasionally, I remember my great ancestry. After me, they will come after you and you, so what will be the fate of our generation, how will our lineage continue? We have come up to today with respect, respect and commitment, and I wish that we continue in the same way from now on. I would like to go again just how we were born and how we came.
Most of the time, my help to humble and benevolent people. For this reason, I have removed many of my people from worthless places and brought them to high positions due to their circumstances. According to their minds, movements and attitudes, I still distribute rankings suitable for them and suitable for many of them. Among them are, for example, spies on the account of Karamanogullari and Alauddevle and their sons, and even those who later cooperated and got caught in them.
I look at the subject as follows: The lord shows the same behavior to someone who is loyal to his master with all the sincerity of his heart, who is sane and whose movements are smooth. I believe that the services and federations of such a person cannot be paid in return for the same service or money.
I still can’t remember: Nice gave ranks to my servants, raised them, and in return I was satisfied with them. However, if some of those who rose with my help again, they paid for these rises very expensive. The office they came to opened many troubles for them. Because the mischief they did when their rank was small, would not be very noticeable. When their authorities rose, what they did and what they did not showed up thoroughly and there was no delay in looking at their requirements.
O son! You have to document this:
There is a big difference between anything occurring constantly with brute force, sword, heroism and overwhelming force, as a result of reason, precaution, patience, farsightedness, trial and exhausting experiences. The first way is not always valid, there are many drawbacks.
Convenient and proper times, opportunities to reduce opportunities, of course, are not given to rush in life and use arm strength. I have experienced this many times and have always come to the same conclusion. For this, it is necessary to bear all the necessary conditions of every asset to be obtained.
If a man enters a garden to eat a garden full of nuts, tear off raw raw fruits that have not yet happened, what he wants to eat is not fruit, perhaps poison. But if he waits for it to ripen and tear it off afterwards, it can only be said to have eaten at that time.
I make my worship against Allah Almighty with the most sincere feelings and heart. With my honest belief, I firmly wish that I will meet all kinds of useful needs in a timely manner and I believe in this.
I can explain this even better with another example:
For example, if a dear and auspicious son wants something very easy to be given from a compassionate father, he will be delighted and delighted to be able to give it, to fulfill his son’s desire, as well as not to give such a son such a thing.
Here you can easily compare the situation and desires of us people with the situation of what is promised by God.
I believe that the responses I have suffered in this world of suffering and suffering will be given by God in another world that will come and beg him to him at any moment. I am also very satisfied with my own situation.
So much so that I will not escape even one step in front of me and try to avoid. Maybe I will be more satisfied and thankful. Because, in this way, I would be glad that I would change my world and go to a new, new world, maybe I would fly. Because the world that I am going to has nothing to do with this world, the life I am living in, this mortal life. I know that the rate is perfect and superior here in hundreds of thousands of ways.
Mankind is constantly walking above the normal line, especially in his youth, food, drink and sexual relations. As a result, all these wastage weakens the human body, and when old age comes and grows, it finds the body in an exhausted and infamous, useless state. In this case, old age has come to such a body that the body does not even have the power to respect it.
For example, you needed a horse. Your barn brought a weak, weak horse to the brain. In this case, is it your fault, or is it the horse-minister, the one who is closely interested in the horse?
Of course, it is for the horse. You just have to ride, not care!
I have seen many elders, although they are very old, they have never seen a doctor face and have completed their lives with health. These are always thanks to diet. They paid attention to diet even in their youth. Because falling to the hands of a doctor at the end of life suffers unbearable pain.
I would like you to know this well: There are three kinds of people in this world.
The first is the people whose minds and ideas are in place, who see and think the future more or less, and have no abnormalities.
Second, those who are far from knowing whether the roads are straight or curved. But they have fallen into this situation not with their own will, but with the environmental impact. When they are advised, they take and accept the heads and listen to the word. Often they live by hearing what they hear and hear.
The third are neither aware of anything nor do they listen to the warnings or advice. They just follow their desires and think they know everything. They are less common than others.
If Allah Almighty created you among the people I counted first, I would be glad. If you are like the second, not the first, I would advise you to heed the advice.
Do not be in the third group! They are not in good condition neither against God nor people.
The sultans look like a person holding a scales. When you become a sultan, I want you to keep the scale right. Then Allah Almighty longing for your good.
What did they say:
Both contemporary and modern historians unite in Murad Han’s genius, size, abundance of goodness and benevolence, and the importance he attaches to zoning, civilization and cultural moves.
Famous Byzantine historian Dukas, II. Murad Han has the following opinion:
God knows that Murad was always kind to the people and generous to the people. He bestowed on his bounties not only those of his own race and religion but also Christians. He would comply with the provisions of sworn trials with Christians. However, although it was seen that some of the Christians returned from their vows, they were wrathed by Allah Almighty because of these treatments and could not get rid of Murad’s revenge.
Murad’s anger and violence would not last very long. After the victory, he would not follow his enemy and would not want to destroy any nation until the end. If the defeated people sent a request for peace by sending envoys, he would gladly accept the envoys and give them peace by giving them peace.
The laws of Sultan Murad were a fortunate man who loved justice. He would only fight when he had to defend himself. He wouldn’t attack anyone unfairly. He would fight if he was attacked. This was not from fear or laziness. If he would, he would go on a trip even in winter, and he would not avoid his knots.
Throughout his thirty years, Murad left the name of a benevolent, fair and text monarch in the memory of his nation, ruling the country with honor and fairness. He was a loyal person of his word even in peace as in the war. But he was a great revenge-seeker for those who broke his contract.
II. With his fairness, good temper, honesty and frankness, Murad is highly praised not only by the Ottoman, but also by the Byzantine historians.
Solakzade Mehmed Hemdemi Efendi :
Because be Şehinşah-ı ali-nelâd
All this time ghazâ and jihâd made the
Sünnet-i ecdâd, the
gloriousness of the moments He
made a good hangah u madrasah
Ta şecer-i cehl i root pouch Hadith-i tawf
made a mosque heaven-Numa
Sıdkı u Hulûsi structure with whether you
‘re hungry, soup kitchen door of
Actors to the Mevlana to accept charity
because this is the dervish speaks of the road
Sultan Murad Han Gazi was a lord of the people and soldiers. At the time, the ulema and the sultan and fukara were in prosperity and safety. In his time, the country became pure and abad from bid’at. This was the alliance of the travelers, a country decorated with justice like their hometown, and a honorable sultan like him was not seen and heard. The country was adorned with the Ahl al-Sunnah sect. People from seventy-two nations came and decided in Rum and lived with confidence.
In the age of this religious sultan, the Greek country was far from anxiety and worry, bad affairs, narrow thought, fun, and decorated with fearlessness and righteousness, decorated with abundance and cheapness. He recognized the value of religion and religious people, the right of virtues. Researchers who know the situation of the Acun (world) countries well, and those who have experienced good manners are:
They said, “The country, like the Greek (Ottoman country) in the age of Sultan Murad, is decorated with truth and justice, and the country is neither seen nor heard.”
Muslims found comfort and fearlessness in the shadow of his celebrated tent, which equipped the countries. The charity made in the auspicious age of this religious sultan; gases with religious enemies; countries conquest; construction of madrasas, masjids, hangovers, mosques, pulpits, stone bridges, caravanserais and other charities; how the scholars are howled, glorified and raised; It has never been seen in any age that the possessions, the abids, the people of the people and the powerless are captured and pitiful. After that, he connects the final end with the following statements.
When the commandment of the Come of your Lord is
filled with sweetness, the bird of heaven should not fly to Him.